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Affirmative action is a very controversial topic; everyone does not have the same views and opinions upon the issue. Due to the presidential elections and how the candidates both have different views upon affirmative action I felt as though this would be a great topic to research. Affirmative action is a growing argument among our society and is a multifaceted topic very vaguely defined. Some can characterize affirmative action as the ability to strive for equality and inclusiveness. Others see it as a quota-based system for different minority groups. However, affirmative action is a policy or a program that seeks to redress past discrimination and eliminate current and future discrimination through active measures to ensure equal opportunity, such as education and employment.
The path affirmative action took before it was finally accepted is a long and tiresome one, beginning in the years that preceded the Civil War. Once America entered into peace time, Congress passed a number of laws designed to put former slaves on an equal level with white citizens. Encouraged by Abraham Lincoln, the Fourteenth Amendment prohibited states from enforcing any laws which took away the privileges of any citizen.
In later years the affirmative action policy was implemented by federal agencies enforcing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and two executive orders, which provided that government contractors and educational institutions receiving federal funds develop such programs. The Equal Employment Opportunities Act (1972) set up a commission to enforce such plans. The establishment of racial quotas due to affirmative action has brought about charges of a so-called "reverse discrimination" which was strongly addressed in the late 1970s.
Due to the claims of reverse discrimination the Supreme Court of the United States placed important limitations on affirmative action programs in its 1978 ruling in Regents of the University of California v…

Affirmative action is a touchy subject to many people regardless of their race, nationality, gender or religion. Affirmative action is accomplished by taking positive steps to recruit, hire, train, and promote individuals from groups that have traditionally been discriminated against on the basis of race, sex, disability, or other characteristics. In this sense, affirmative action goes beyond equal employment opportunity, which requires employers to eliminate discriminatory conditions, whether inadvertent or intentional, and to treat all employees equally in the workplace. Affirmative action requirements can be imposed on an employer in a number of ways: by federal law, for federal government contractors and subcontractors; as part of a conciliation agreement with a state or federal agency; or by court order. In addition, some employers voluntarily adopt affirmative action plans in an effort to create a more balanced workforce.
Affirmative action programs have risen as a result of executive orders, legislation, consent decrees stemming from government investigations, court-ordered remedies, and voluntary action by corporations and other non-public institutions.
"Affirmative action is an attempt to redistribute economic power by forcing employers to give preference to women. As with all schemes of distributing justice, choice is taken from individuals and given to social planners. Affirmative action has been a debacle. It has not cured sex segregation in the work place or closed the wage gap between men and women. More importantly, it has hindered the institution that has done the most to benefit women economically: the free market." ("McElroy", 2003)
In work and schools many employers and university officials have placed the idea of diversity, rather than the moral imperative of anti-discrimination, at the center of their arguments for affirmative action. For some, achieving greater diversity is a way…

 Megan White
Spcom 105
Affirmative Action (persuasive)
When the term affirmative action wasfirst used in 1961, President John Kennedy had
intentions of making a better America.(Steven Cahn, The Affirmative Action Debate 2002.)
What was a good start then, needs to be put to an end now. Affirmative action needs
reforming.Because affirmative action is outdated, harms more than it helps, and no longer
helps the people in need, it should be changed.
Affirmative Action was created with the general population felt that minorities weren't as good
as they were.Minorities were kept out of decent jobs, decent homes, and were secluded from the
rest of the country by water fountains, restaurants, and seating arraignments in public
transportation. This had a clear effect of their success. Back then minorities were far less likely
to graduate, go to college, or get a decent job. While ignorant people who feel race plays a part in
intelligence still exist, we can see that minorities have had their come back.The New York
Times reported that, "In 2001, 55% of black high school students and 52% of Latinos went on to
college, which is not that much lower than the 64% of white high school students who went on to
college. Blacks make up 11% of the total undergraduate population, which is close to the 12.9%
of the total population they represent.”(New York Times June 25, 2003) Unfortunately, allowing
affirmative action to continue is now harming rather than helping minorities.
First of all affirmative action violates laws that are trying to protect equal rights.The 14th
amendment clearly states that the state shall “deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal
protection of the laws,” yet affirmative makes an employer as well as the admi…

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